Tribute to Kurodo

​ISSN: 2320-5407 Int. J. Adv. Res. 4(12), 975-79

Journal Homepage: – http://www.journalijar.com 

Article DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/xxx

DOI URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.21474/IJAR01/xxx

RESEARCH ARTICLE

PAUL KAZUO KURODA.

Oliver K. Manuel.

CSSI Associate & Emeritus Professor, University of Missouri, Cape Girardeau, MO 63701 USA.

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Manuscript Info Abstract

……………………. ……………………………………………………………… Manuscript History

Received: 23 October 2016

Final Accepted: 21 November 2016

Published: December 2016

Key words:-

Mass, Energy, Reality, Nuclear Secrets, 

Nuclear Binding Energy, Origin

Paul Kazuo Kuroda, the first nuclear scientist to examine Hiroshima’s 

ruins in August 1945, became a patriarch of humanity who discretely 

risked his life to expose false nuclear models after WWII that isolated 

humanity from reality, violated Einstein’s 1905 hypothesis and 

Aston’s 1922 confirmation: Atomic rest mass (m) indelibly records 

nuclear energy (E), including neutron repulsion in cores of heavy 

elements, like the uranium atoms powering nuclear reactors and 

atomic bombs, ordinary stars like the Sun, galaxies and the currently 

expanding universe. After Kuroda’s 2001 death, BBC reported 

Kuroda had secretly retained a copy of Japan’s WWII atomic bomb 

design.

 

 Copy Right, IJAR, 2016,. All rights reserved.

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Introduction:- Einstein (1905) proposed and Aston (1922) measured atomic rest masses and received the 1922 Nobel Prize in 

Chemistry for confirming that the mass (m) of ordinary atoms is stored energy (E), E = mc2

. Aston reported atomic 

masses in units of nuclear “packing fraction” ( f ), where f = M/A -1, when M is the measured mass in atomic mass 

units (amu) and A is the atomic mass number.

After Chadwick (1932a.b) discovered the neutron, Weizsacker (1935) and Bethe and Backer (1936) developed a 

semi-empirical neutron-proton model of the nucleus to calculate values of “nuclear binding energy” that subtly 

disagreed with the implications of Einstein’s 1905 equation and Aston’s 1922 nuclear “packing fractions.”

Calculated values for “nuclear binding energy” of many neutron-rich radioactive atoms are greater than the 

calculated values for “nuclear binding energy” of their stable decay-products, e.g., 3

H vs.3

He, 14C vs.14N, etc.,

because calculated values of “nuclear binding energy” are systematically higher for neutron-rich atoms than for 

proton-rich atoms by 0.782 MeV per neutron (Manuel, 2016a,b).

Kuroda’s genius became evident eighty years earlier, following Aston’s lecture on nuclear “packing fractions” at 

the Imperial University of Tokyo on 13 June 1936, when Kuroda was a 19-year-old student. Young Kuroda noticed,

and later recorded in his autobiography, the inability of a physicist in the audience to grasp Aston’s concept of 

nuclear “packing fraction” (Kuroda, 1992, page 7).

Nine years later, in August 1945, Kuroda was the faculty member at the Imperial University of Tokyo sent to 

examine the ruins of Hiroshima. There, Kuroda realized, “The sight before my eyes was just like the end of the 

world, but I also felt that the beginning of the world may have been just like this” (Kuroda, 1982, last line of page 

2).

Corresponding Author:- Oliver K. Manuel.

Address:- CSSI Associate & Emeritus Professor, University of Missouri, Cape 

Girardeau, MO 63701 USA.

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